Thursday, August 27, 2020

Equity and Trusts Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Value and Trusts Law - Essay Example A fixed trust will be consequently void except if every recipient could be distinguished. Though with an optional trust a House of Lords choice held that the test was unique: would it be able to be said with any conviction that a specific individual is or isn't an individual from the class of recipient It is in this manner of worry that the money related consultants at Rigby, Jolly and Pinnar (RJP) are blending fixed and optional trusts into a solitary instrument. Recipients in fixed trusts are dispensed a predefined offer or enthusiasm for the instrument. This prompts a circumstance whereby a fixed trust can't be directed except if the exact number and personality of the recipients is known, since every recipient 'claims' a predefined portion of the trust. It is significant that there ought to be neither reasonable nor evidential vulnerability. There have been signs that the courts will loosen up this prerequisite somewhat gave it is conceivable on an equalization of probabilities to arrange a rundown of the recipients so as to decide the most extreme measure of offers regardless of whether the specific personality and whereabouts of a recipient is obscure. Subsequently in Gold v Hill [1999]4 an oral bearing to a recipient to 'take care of Carol and the children's was regarded adequately sure to maintain the trust, in spite of the way that the urging is not entirely clear. Optional trusts notwithstanding, are dealt with distinctively by the courts since they perpetually permit the trustees caution in choosing the recipients. Given the trustees can appropriate the returns there is no specific need to distinguish every single imaginable recipient: McPhail v Doulton [1971]5. The court will take a gander at all the conditions to decide a reasonable conveyance of the returns - be that delegating new trustees or an agent from the class of recipients or even the first trustees. The choice in Re Baden's Deed Trusts (No 2) [1973]6 required a differentiation to be made between theoretical (or semantic) vulnerability and evidential trouble. The court applied the McPhail test to the wording dependants and family members: Would it be able to be said with assurance that any given individual is or isn't an individual from the class For instance the expression my kids may make evidential trouble - which won't rout the court, yet every one of the individuals who owe me favors is adroitly questionable in light of the fact that the portrayal in the last isn't thoughtfully clear. How would we characterize 'favors' in that state The class of dependants and family members is theoretically sure. When that had been set up then it is a clear issue to decide if indeed a specific individual is a family member or a dependant. How about we run the Head of Legal Services provisos past the McPhail test: My companions Steady legal counselors working I the EU all or any of the gorgeous young ladies I dated in my childhood 1. Is the expression reasonably certain No - excessively questionable. No target test for what a 'companion' intended to the promoter No - the word 'steady' is excessively unclear. How might the promoter characterize 'steady' No - the expression 'great

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Innovation Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Development Management - Essay Example Turn Brush, a one of a kind oscillating brush got this security from the United States government that kept it thriving over its rivals over an incredible timeframe. This privilege has fended off the numerous rivals in the market from utilizing the plan and bundling of Spin-Brush in this way making the item to stay important and exceptional in the market. The ‘try-me’ structure in which Spin-Brush has been formulated draws in many clients to it and most likely numerous organizations would need to misuse that so they could likewise drive in numerous customers. This has been secured by the patent rights that Osher got. Patent has additionally made it simple to permit it with organizations, for example, Crest. Its worth has kept on being high since numerous contenders are avoided modifying it causing it to be the main item with those highlights. Clients in this way think that its prominent contrasted with different items because of bundling and structure. Organizations are probably going to react in various manners as they attempt to counter-kill the control of Spin-Brush so they may stay significant in the serious business. There is a chance of bringing down the costs of oscillating brushes that recently sold at more significant expenses than that of Spin-Brush so as to draw in clients. Likewise, organizations are probably going to mount limited time crusades to make mindfulness concerning their items in the business sectors (Fox, 2013:147). Turn Brush makers need to increment significantly more their promotions and field exhibits demonstrating how effective their item is. A counter-limited time system would work best to limit ascent of these other serious organizations since the plan and bundling in which Spin-Brush is made favors it over different players in the business. Different creations are bound to come up in zones that are not secured by the patent right, for example, mechanical expertise behind the creation. Subsequently, t he

Friday, August 21, 2020

Blog Archive Manhattan GMATs Pre-MBA Boot Camp

Blog Archive Manhattan GMAT’s Pre-MBA Boot Camp Our friends at Manhattan GMAT are kicking off their annual Pre-MBA Boot Camp, designed for recently admitted business school students who want to level the b-school playing field.   If you are rusty on or new to the core b-school topics or are not coming from a “typical” business background, this boot camp will sharpen your acumen and get you ready for day one. In this class, you will learn the MBA fundamentals of statistics and data modeling, finance, micro economics and marketing, valuation, accounting, pricing and strategy. leave with critical tools such as Manhattan Prep’s Case Mapper tool, quick reference sheets, an advanced Excel primer, and Case Studies Cocktails, a b-school survival guide. receive insider know-how from top MBA alumni on how to maximize your potential in b-school (including landing those big-ticket MBA jobs). This event will also allow you to network with recent admits from other top schools, such as  HBS, Stanford, Wharton, MIT, Kellogg, Columbia, NYU Stern, Duke and more. Cost: Manhattan Prep’s Pre-MBA Boot Camp in NYC $295* Dates: Weeknight Session:   June 20, 21, 27, 28 (6:00-9:30) Weekend Session:   June 30 to July 1 (9:00-5:00) Registration: Click here  to reserve a spot or to get more information. *Manhattan Prep will refund you $100 when you share your feedback on the boot camp after your first  semester. Share ThisTweet mbaMission Events

Monday, May 25, 2020

Schizophrenia Disease of the Brain - 845 Words

Schizophrenia is a complex brain disorder. Like many other illnesses, schizophrenia is believed to result from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. All the tools of modern science are being used to search for the causes of this disorder. The term schizophrenia is Greek in origin, and in the Greek meant split mind. This is not an accurate medical term. In Western culture, some people have come to believe that schizophrenia refers to a split-personality disorder. These are two very different disorders, and people with schizophrenia do not have separate personalities. Schizophrenia is a complex and puzzling illness. Even the experts in the field are not exactly sure what causes it. Some doctors think that the brain may not†¦show more content†¦Usually with schizophrenia, the person s inner world and behavior change notably. Changes might include the following: #61692; Catatonic type: • Motor disturbances • Stupor • Negativism • Rigidity • Agitation • Inability to take care of personal needs • Decreased sensitivity to painful stimulus #61692; Paranoid type: • Delusional thoughts of persecution or of a grandiose nature • Anxiety • Anger • Violence • Argumentativeness #61692; Disorganized type: • Incoherence (not understandable) • Regressive behavior • Flat affect • Delusions • Hallucinations • Inappropriate laughter • Repetitive mannerisms • Social withdrawal #61692; Undifferentiated type: Patient may have symptoms of more than one subtype of schizophrenia. #61692; Residual type: Prominent symptoms of the illness have abated, but some features - such as hallucinations and flat affect - may remain. The diagnosis of schizophrenia is made based on a thorough psychiatric interview of the person and family members. As yet, there are no defining medical tests for schizophrenia. The following factors may suggest a schizophrenia diagnosis, but do not confirm it: • Developmental background • Genetic and family history • Changes from level of functioning prior to illness • Course of illness and duration of symptoms • Response to pharmacological therapy CT scans of the head and other imaging techniques may identify some changes associatedShow MoreRelatedIs Schizophrenia A Mental Disease?1242 Words   |  5 Pages Schizophrenia A normal person is able to go about their day without any problems at all, however, for a person with schizophrenia, their day may be next to impossible. The voices playing throughout that person’s head all the time distracts them from their everyday activities. Their reality is much different than a person without this disorder. Schizophrenia is a mental disease that affects many and can become very serious if not handled correctly; if more research is done on this disease thenRead More Dangerous Mind - Psychology Essay1747 Words   |  7 Pagespertains to my major. In this case the mental disorder schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a severly disabilitating disease that has stricken the lives of almost two million people in the United States alone (Keefe 20). Since this disease is so devastating the majority of people that suffer from it either live on the streets or in mental institutions. In fact, forty percent of the beds in American mental hospitals are occupied by patients with schizophrenia (Hamilton 145). According to Hamilton the overallRead MoreSchizophrenia Is A Disabling Brain Disorder858 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia is a disabling brain disorder that has affected many people throughout history. While having this disorder there is many things that goes through a person’s mind. Many people with Schizophrenia may hear voices that other people don’t hear. Also with this disease they believe other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. With those symptoms this can cause people to become ill and make them withdrawn or extremely agitated. Some other effectsRead More Schizophrenia: Reality Distorted Essay1377 Words   |  6 PagesSchizophrenia: Reality Distorted Insanity, then, is inordinate or irregular, or impaired action of the mind, of the instincts, sentiments, intellectual, or perceptive powers, depending upon and produced by an organic change in the brain. ---W.A.F. Browne, MD, 18371 Schizophrenia is considered a disease of the brain, a physical disorder that, thanks to modern technology, is able to be visualized. Schizophrenia, along with other diseases of the brain, such as Parkinsons, Alzheimers, andRead MoreSymptoms Of Schizophrenia And Bipolar Disorder1258 Words   |  6 Pages The cases of diagnosed Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder have been on the rise for the past several years. Since these diseases are hereditarily linked, the rise of childhood onset Schizophrenia and Bipolar disorder has also had increased diagnosed cases. Through new medical research and availability of new treatments and medication, scientists and doctors are now uncovering new reasons as to why these mental diseases are on the come up. Human studies administered by various research facilitiesRead MoreShedding Some Light of Schizophrenia Essay1551 Words   |  7 Pages Schizophrenia affects about 2.5 million Americans and 24 million worldwide. However, not everything is known about the mental illness. What part of the brain Schizophrenia affects and the different types of tests used to detect it. What medications have shown the best results, but what are their side effects that may come with? Is it worth the risk? Also what are all the possible ways Schizophrenia can be insti gated? â€Å"New test and machines also enabled researchers to study the structureRead MoreThe Psychological Disorder Of Schizophrenia Essay1582 Words   |  7 PagesExamples of these disorders are; depression, anxiety disorder, Schizophrenia, child hood disorders, impulse control disorders personality disorders, adjustment disorders and family disorders. I chose to write about Schizophrenia so that I can clear the air concerning the basic psychological ailments, and to assist people know what to do if a loved one identifies extremities in the manifestation of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia being a serious brain disorder affecting how people think, behave and act promptedRead MoreEssay Biological, Social and Psychological Causes of Schizophrenia558 Words   |  3 PagesBiological, Social and Psychological Causes of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a very serious, long-term disorder that affects about 1% of the world’s population. It affects people anywhere from twenty years old, to forty-five years old. It is known to be one of the most disabling diseases in this age group. Schizophrenia can break down a person’s behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. People who suffer from schizophrenia usually show very inappropriate displays of their actions and feelings. SufferersRead MorePsychology : The Horror Of Schizophrenia1521 Words   |  7 Pages Emelia Baidoo Abnormal Psychology The Horror of Schizophrenia 10/07/2015 Schizophrenia Background (course of the disorder)Schizophrenia is a severe cognitive impairment that interferes with a person’s mental or emotional and behavior, all of which have a bizarre aspect. Delusions, also generally bizarre, and hallucinations, generally auditory in type, also typically occur. The original name for this illness, â€Å"dementia praecox,† was coined by Emil Kraepelin, a German psychiatristRead More Schizophrenia Essay1439 Words   |  6 PagesSchizophrenia Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional thinking process and withdrawal from the outside world. The word schizophrenia comes from two Greek words schizo which means split and phrenia, which means mind. This doesnt mean that a person with the disorder has multiple personalities, but rather parts of the mind seem to be operating independent of each other. The disease affects approximately 1 in 100 people and there are thought to be over

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Human Resource Management And Operational And Strategic...

(1). critically evaluate the role and importance of human resource management in operational and strategic contexts. Ans: Human resource management (HRM) is a process of hiring and developing employees in an organization, such that they become and act like a strength to that particular organization. Human resource management is responsible for making the organization run smoothly and perfectly. The various operations and services that will be included in human resource management are recruitment, job analysis, administrative services, and employee relationship management. These services/operations provided by the human resource management are only to support the management and staff of the organization in their daily activities. The most common functions performed by HRM in an organization are: Resolving the disputes in the organization Orienting and training Managing wages and salaries Recruiting the right people for the specific positions in the organization Providing benefits and incentives Planning personnel needs for the welfare and comfortability of the employees Conducting the job analysis Communicating with all the employees irrespective of their position in the organization Human resource management services in operational context includes all the below functions: †¢ Management †¢ Hiring †¢ Job Analyzing †¢ Employee relations MANAGEMENT: Generally Human resource department is responsible for payroll management, employee data maintenance, and risk andShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management : An Organization Essay1429 Words   |  6 PagesHuman resource Management is very important in every organization. It satisfies the needs of man power and creates an atmosphere where all employees can work together to achieve the goals of an organization. HRM role is to plan how to recruit right people and give experienced and well trained workforce to organization. It makes plans for training and development of human resource in an organization. The main functions of Human Resource Management in an organization are given below: 1. RecruitmentRead MoreRoles And Importance Of Human Resource Management Essay1693 Words   |  7 PagesAnswer1. Roles and Importance of Human Resource Management Human Resource Management is the procedure of requirement, selection, giving orientation , making giving trainings to employees and the creating skills, appraisal of worker , giving remuneration and advantages, benefits, providing motivation, keeping up workers security, welfare and wellbeing by following work laws of concern state or nation. Human Resource Management is the procedure of usage of accessible restricted talented workforceRead MoreQuestions On Human Resource Management Essay1742 Words   |  7 PagesBy: KOMAL Answer 1. Human resource Management is very important in every organization. It satisfies the needs of man power and creates an atmosphere where all employees can work together to achieve the goals of an organization. HRM role is to plan how to recruit right people and give experienced and well trained workforce to organization.It makes plans for training and development of hunman resource in an organization.The main functions of Human Resource Management in an organization are givenRead MoreHuman Resource Management and Strategic Human Resource Management1136 Words   |  5 PagesManaging Human Resources, 3rd edn, John Wiley Sons, Milton, Qld. In chapter 1 of the text, the author shows an overview of human resource management and strategic human resource management. The author also shows the relationship between HRM and management, manager’s role meaning of strategy, strategic approach to HRM and strategic challenges. Lots of diagrams and explanations are used by the author. This chapter has contributed to my understanding of strategic human resource management by analysingRead MoreSwot Approaches Of Strategic Human Resource Management Essay1603 Words   |  7 PagesEssay: SHRM Approaches Analyzing Case Study Introduction Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is a design and an approach for managing the companies human resources and the needs of their employees along with goals of the company, it requires thinking ahead and making the new ways for the organization to meet requirements of their employees and the employees should fulfil the requirements of the organization as well as achieving the sustainable competitive advantages(BrattonGold,2012)Read MoreGeneral Guidelines And Rules On Risk Management1550 Words   |  7 PagesISO 31000:2009 explains the general guidelines and rules on risk management. These guidelines are used by associations, companies, organisations, private, communities, public and groups or individuals. Hence, ISO 31000:2009 does not limit to any particular industry. ISO 31000:2009 can be brought in application for the whole life span of an organization, and to a broad area of activities, which covers plans and strategies, decision making processes, specific functions, product and services etc. ThisRead MoreThe Key Financial Commitments That The Company Must Make A Strategy For Managing Human Resources818 Words   |  4 PagesThe key financial commitments that the company must make are the following ones. In fact, for sound financial management of the company, decision makers of Wal-Mart should develop consistent tools. They have to find both forecasting tools and control tools. Indeed, forecasting tools are tools that are based on objectives to achieve. In general, it is made by the internal workers to the company to guide those responsible for achieving the financial objectives of the company. Moreover, the controlRead MoreExamples of Ihrm and Domestic Hrm Essay841 Words   |  4 Pagesmultinational ventures stem from a lack of understanding of the essential differences in managing human resources in foreign environments (Desatnick Bennett 1978). The world has become more globalized, competitive, dynamic and uncertain than ever before. As more and more firms operate internationally, the search for the elements of global competitive advantage is a prominent theme in the management literature (Dickman Mà ¼ller-Camen, 2006: 580). There is a clear need to develop an understandingRead MoreGeneral Guidelines And Rules On Risk Management1620 Words   |  7 PagesSO 31000:2009 explains the general guidelines and rules on risk management. These guidelines are used by associations, companies, organisations, private, communities, public and groups or individuals. Hence, ISO 31000:2009 does not limit to any particular industry. ISO 31000:2009 can be brought in application for the whole life span of an organization, and to a broad area of activities, which covers plans and strategies, decision making processes, specific functions, product and services etc. ThisRead MoreThe Long Term Performance Of A Company1558 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Greek terms Stratos (army) and agein (lead). In the managerial context, and in today s meaning, that word has replaced the more traditional term long-term planning, to denote a specific pattern of decisions and actions taken by the highest level of the organization to achieve the performance targets. In this context, the strategic management is defined, therefore, as that set of decisions and actions taken by management to assess the long term performance of a company. The world of organizations

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Low Visibility - 1008 Words

The short story â€Å"Low Visibility† by Margaret Murphy is a fictional story, which deals with many topics, such as violence, love, hate, oppression, and right and wrong and the story is told by an un ­instructed and omniscient 3. person narrator who tells the story as it unfolds. The plot takes off in medias res as we are thrown into a scene where Laura s husband John is watch ­ing television without any introduction. The structure in the story lets us jump a bit back and forth between two settings, as we are shown what is happening in the streets though Johns television, while we are also following the main characters in the apartment. So the story unfolds two places: the streets and John and Laura s apartment. The setting shows that Laura†¦show more content†¦Laura realizes that a person has ability to change. She is revived. â€Å"She feels herself returning – the particles of herself that her hus ­band caused to flee are returning into her† (P12 l. 161-163). She considers killing him with a brick, but chooses the Tigers Eye instead which is placed in her other hand. The Tigers Eye symbolizes that she is focus, patience like a tiger who concentrates on its desire. In this case, Laura s desire is to be free. The most important is the importance of fighting for your rights and freedom. Laura’s marriage has reduced her to a simple object with no liberty or human rights. As the story however approaches, she realizes that she will have to stand up against her husband, if she wants the situation changed. When Laura walks away, she walks away to be invisible again, to join the invisible people (P. 12 l. 173). She fight oppression and changed the situation, like it is naturally to fight oppression. Some ­times you need a little push like Laura did, but essentially it is inevitable. It secures human survival, and it secured her mental survival. â€Å"A window explodes behind her, sending cascades of glass, mu ­sical, deadly, to the pavement. Laura is unharmed (P. 12 lShow MoreRelatedPerformance Analysis Of Fso Communication System1919 Words   |  8 Pagesprocess in FSO systems. The scattering transmittance is given by (2) [8]: Ï„_s=e^(-ÃŽ ³_fog.L) (2) where ÃŽ ³_fog the attenuation due to fog is given by (3) [7] : ÃŽ ³_fog (ÃŽ »)=3.91/V (ÃŽ »/550)^(-ÃŽ ´) (3) here, V stands for visibility in km, ÃŽ » stands for wavelength in nm and the parameter ÃŽ ´ is visibility dependence. From this equation it is clear that for any meteorological conditions, the wavelength is inversely proportional with the attenuation. For Kruse model ÃŽ ´ is given by (4) [10]. ÃŽ ´= 1.6 V50km (4) 1.3 6kmRead MoreSingle Image Dehazing By Using Fusion Based Strategy2316 Words   |  10 PagesCity,Country:Namakkal, India. Abstract: Bad weather, such as fog, haze significantly degrade the visibility of the scene. Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon that significantly degrades the visibility of outdoor scenes. It is due to the atmosphere particles that absorb and scatter the light. Removing haze means increases the visibility of the scene and applicable for both color and gray images. The method is a fusion based strategy that derives the inputsRead MoreScientific Conventions, Abbreviation And Acronym Definitions Essay2560 Words   |  11 Pagesradioactive dust in the air and ground, but is accumulative; this is more often isolated and rare incidents, have heavy regulation inspections in place to prevent such occurrences (in theory), events that are rare to occur but is very damaging are called low probability high consequence events. (EPA, August 30, 2016; WHO, September 2016) One common health condition that is affected by air quality is asthma; a respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficultyRead MoreFilm Analysis Of Neill Blomkamps District 9848 Words   |  4 Pagesthe scenes involving the lab use the same lighting, returning that familiarity -- accounting for every scene set in a predominantly human location. However, when the footage of the alien ship being boarded appears in the films prelude, visibility dwindles. The low-key lighting makes everything in the ship seem like shadows; this drastic change of the set and lighting leaves the audience uncomfortable and tense. The small glimpse of the aliens harboring their ship made them appear horrifying; whereasRead MoreJetstar Essay1081 Words   |  5 PagesExecutive Summary Jetstar Airways is an Australia low-cost carrier airline based in Melbourne, Australia. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Qantas Group. Qantas established Jetstar in 2003 as a response to main competitor airline Virgin Australia (formerly known as Virgin Blue). Despite its low cost, Jetstar operates an extensive domestic network and is the world’s largest long-haul low cost carrier. Jetstar operates to destinations in Asia the Pacific Ocean, with future plans of expandingRead MoreBritish Airways And Ryanair And The Airline Industry2559 Words   |  11 Pagesdeveloping rapidly in order to compete among each other and survive in the larger markets leading to aggregate competition between low cost/no frills carriers -LCC and the more traditional full service carriers-FSC (Hunter: 2006). Due to rapid development, consumer trend tend to improve in the market because flying on mainstream carriers was no longer cost-effective, therefore, low cost carrier was introduced (Whitelegg: 2005). Subsequently, operation strategy is fundamental to the success of the businessesRead MoreSouthwests Long Term Strategy1327 Words   |  6 Pagesstrategy is to provide superior service with low-cost targeting point-to-point destinations. When compared with its competitors, Southwest’s business model leverages the operations, resources and strategies very efficiently to minimize costs. The following are the few techniques/strategies which exemplify the success of Southwest’s operations. For over decades, Southwest chose small and midsize airports in big cities, where its competition is relatively low. Using small airports is hassle-free due toRead MoreIncreasing Competition Between Low Cost Carriers1679 Words   |  7 Pagesshort-haul or medium-haul trip rather than the countries with longer flight length and higher prices. The low-cost carriers (LCC) capacity share boosts significantly in Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines from 3% in 2001 to over 50% in 2012 (CAPA, 2013). Therefore, the air travel industry in Asia is now experiencing increasing competition between low-cost carriers (LCC) and the traditional full service carriers (Hunter 2006). Scoot, founded in 2011Read MoreBritish Airways And Ryanair And The Airline Industry2520 Words   |  11 Pagesother and survive in the larger markets. The passenger air travel industry is facing aggregate competition between low cost/no frills carriers -LCC and the more traditional full service carriers-FSC (Hunter 2006). Due to rapid development, consumer trend improved in the market because flying on mainstream carriers was no longer cost-effectively practical, which lead to an appear of low cost carrier (Whitelegg, 2005). Subsequently, operation strategy is fundamental to the success of the businessesRead MoreInnovation And Disruptive Technology For A Company1662 Words   |  7 Pages Employment during this time went from 844 in 1970 to a high of 9,195 in 1972, and back down to 4,261 in 1980. Production was behind, workers went on strike, employees lost their jobs, sometimes two and three times, and morale was at an all time low. At the end of 1979, when Lockheed was at its lowest point, new management came in and brought the hopes of a brighter future. Dale Daniels took over as project manager and immediately began to rebuild and restructure the organization. INNOVATION:

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Context of Pharmacological Academic Performance †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Context of Pharmacological Academic Performance. Answer: Introduction The aim of the assignment is to demonstrate the ability to reflect on the health scenario in the case study of Wasim. Wasim is a university student, and while using Facebook, he finds his friends talking about purchasing smart drugs. He learns from them these drugs are used to increase performance in exams. Upon personal investigation, he finds that these drugs are prescribed for conditions like ADHD, which is not diagnosed in any of his friends case. Wasim decided to evaluate evidence pertaining to use of such drugs and find if what his friends are claiming are true. The objective of the essay is to address the health question developed by Wasim and critically evaluate the evidence provided in relation to the question. The essay initially analyses the quality of the evidence provided followed by the discussion on the factors influencing the implementation of the evidence. The essay highlights the PICO elements and lastly discuses if the evidence aligns with the PICO question. The research study by Hildt et al. (2014), involves three authors. Each of the authors belongs to the different professional background. The first author is Elisabeth Hildt. She works at Illinois Institute of Technology at centre for Study of Ethics. She works as professor and director. She is an expert in neuroscience and especially deals with cognitive studies. Her research is based on ethical and philosophical issues in the subject. The second author is Klaus Lieb, working as professor and director at Mainz University in the Psychiatry and Psychotherapy department. The third author of the research study is AndreasGnterFranke also works in the same department as the second author as a trainee (Hildt et al. 2014). The research has no conflict of interest in regards to authors of paper. The appropriate and sufficient details on authorship are the strength of the study as it indicates the credibility of research. It indicates the readers about the reliability of the research. The research study has considered the ethical issues which also add to the strength of the study (LoBiondo-Wood Haber, 2017). It can be judged that the authors collaborating in the study are highly qualified. It can be interpreted that their affiliations and expertise is relevant to conduct the study in the area of smart drugs. The aim of the paper is clearly sated which is to investigate the prescription, and illicit stimulants use by the university students for academic performance in a broad context. The research question is not stated. It can be interpreted from the background that the research question is to know if the cognitive enhancement solely represents the use of drugs or its serves any other purpose too. The aims and objectives of the paper justify the need of the study. Since there is insufficient literature pertaining to use of smart drugs and the real world effects associated with it, the research study aims to address the gap in this area. Other than the academic enhancement the study also aims to identify additional benefits of smart drugs. It can be considered the strength of the study. However, lack of clear research question or hypothesis is the weakness of the study. It is because the aim is broad and having specific research question would have been convenient for readers (OBrien et al., 2014). The paper uses the qualitative research paradigm. The data collection instrument is to conduct semi-structured interviews in a face-to-face setting. The methodology and the methods used in the study are justified. It is the strength of the study. According to Mertens (2014), qualitative interviews are appropriate in order to explore the perceptions of the participants and interaction with the stimulants for enhancing the academic performance (Brannen, 2017). Semi-structured interviews used for data collection is justified as it provides insights of the students opinions and beliefs of using stimulants. It is the strength of the research paper. The participants of the study are students of MainzUniversity who are recruited anonymously via email. These participants have been confirmed to take prescription or illicit (psycho-) stimulants. A total of 18 participants were chosen. The participant's size is justified as a qualitative interview is time-consuming method. It is not possible to consider large sample size. There is a chance of potential bias with the participant's self-selection process (McCusker Gunaydin, 2015). This may be considered the weakness of the study. The findings reveal that cognitive enhancement does not solely represent the intake of stimulants for better academic results. The other benefits of stimulants found include leading an active life, well balancing the academics and other liabilities, effective time management, cope up with memorising, maximise time, and increase motivation. The strength of the study is the findings that address the research aims. The weakness of the study is the discrepancy related to the subjective and the objective outcomes (Hildt et al., 2014). In the quantitative study by (Munro et al., 2017), Bailey A. Munro is the first author and is the expert of Neuroscience subject. The first and the second author Lisa L. Weyandt, work at University of Rhode Island, United States. The later is professor in the department of psychology. Marisa E. Marraccin is the third author. She is the professor at Alpert Medical School of Brown University and researches research in Bradley Hasbro Research Centre, at University of Rhode Island. The fourth author of the paper is Danielle R. Oster, who also works in the same university as previous two authors and is the professor of psychology. There are no conflicts of interest. It can be judged that the authors collaborating in the study are highly qualified to conduct research on human cognitive function. Their affiliations and expertise is relevant to conduct the study in the area of smart drugs. It constitutes the strength of the study. The appropriate and sufficient details on authorship indicate the credibility and reliability of research. The weakness of the study is lack of details on ethical consideration (Creswell Poth, 2017). The research aims to investigate the relationship between use of stimulants by university students non-medically and executive function. The author clearly stated the first hypothesis as students are taking the stimulants to overcome executive deficits. The author also stated the second hypothesis as use of stimulants non-medically may moderate the relationship between academic performance and executive function. The researchers did justify the need of the study by conducting the thorough literature review on how academic outcomes are decreased by poor executive skills such as planning, orientation, self-regulation, and goal-oriented behaviour adding to strength of the study (LoBiondo-Wood Haber, 2017). The survey method is justified for this research this instrument is effective in collecting the self-report data from the research participants and assesses the opinions and feelings of research participants. It is appropriate for psychology-based research with broad goals. It is the strength of the study (McCusker Gunaydin, 2015). The participants are university students from six public universities of US and sample size is 308. The drawback of the paper is the use of sample as priority based on the primary aim of the study. Convenience sampling employed may hinder the generalisability of the findings (McCusker Gunaydin, 2015). The study should have proportionate number of participants (white and female). It may constitute the weakness of the study (Munro et al., 2017). Since the study is voluntary, the participants may not be representative of the entire population. The findings reveal that there is a high rate of NMUPS among students with deficits in executive skills and low rate among those without deficits. The executive skills improve with the use of stimulants. There is also high rate of use of stimulants with self-reported deficits, which makes the first hypothesis correct. These results only partially support the second hypothesis as there is no moderation of relation between executive function and grade point average. The results were statistically significant adding to the strength of the article. The findings appear to be slightly reliable due to self-reported data (Brannen, 2017). The results are supported by the National Centre for Research. The weakness of the study includes lack of consideration of the confounding factors and poor statistical significance of the interaction effect. (Munro et al., 2017). There are several barriers to application of the evidence obtained by Wasim. It includes the discrepancy in the subjective and objective data of the participants. Underreporting of data is possible due to quantitative questionnaires. Further, there is a potential bias due to personal response of participants. It is difficult to rule of social desirability. Further, barriers to use of evidence come from size and complexity of qualitative and quantitative research study, which may limit the concluding evidence (Maier Schaub, 2015). Therefore, Wasim may not be able to rely on this evidence or conclude the claims of his friends as true. Without knowing the drug kinetics or pharmacology of stimulants, it is difficult to rely on evidence for personal use (Munro et al., 2017). These four components assist the investigator in identifying the evidence from the literature search that can address specific clinical situation (Richardson et al., 2017). In the PICO question developed by Wasim, The population is University students, Intervention is the Use of stimulants, and The outcome is the academic performance enhancement. The research evidence strongly aligns with the PICO question and its elements. It well addresses the PICO question-Do stimulants increase academic performance in university students? As per the discussion, the stimulants increase academic performance when used by the university students. The driving force for taking these stimulants non-medically is the increase in motivation and executive skills. It may not be beneficial to take smart drugs illicitly as it accompanies ambiguous effects such as substance abuse. Conclusion As per the critical evaluation of the evidence provided, the quality of both the research articles is adequate. It was useful in addressing the PICO question of Wasim. There are both positive and negative aspects of stimulants use among the university students. Stimulants increase the academic performance. It is effective for students diagnosed poor executive functioning skills and with ADHD. It may be harmful to self-reported deficits. It may be harmful for Wasims friends to take these stimulants as they are not diagnosed with ADHD or prescribed for stimulants. 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